Frank Dobbin and Alexandra Kalev studied data from hundreds of firms over dozens of years and found that the three most popular diversity programs – mandatory training, testing and grievance systems – not only fall far short of stated goals, but can make things worse. Ellen McGirt of Fortune’s raceAhead quotes Dobbin saying, “You need to get managers – who are typically white men-engaged in solving the specific diversity problem their company has . . . . All the successful programs have this in common.”